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Die Kontamination von Lebensmitteln mit Schwermetallen ist in den letzten Jahrzehnten zu einer immer größer werdenden Besorgnis für Umwelt- und Gesundheitsbehörden geworden. Es ist klar, dass Schwermetalle für lebende Organismen jenseits jeder Reparatur toxisch sein können und unsere Umwelt davon durchsetzt ist. Viele Menschen suchen nach dem richtigen Weg, um eine Schwermetallvergiftung zu vermeiden. Doch die feine Grenze zwischen sicher und toxisch zu definieren, hat sich als eine fortlaufende Herausforderung erwiesen. Das Ergebnis hängt größtenteils von der Dosis, Form und insgesamt von der Eliminationsfähigkeit des Organismus ab.

heavy metal poisoning

FDA-Haftungsausschluss: Shilajit ist nicht dazu bestimmt, Krankheiten zu diagnostizieren, zu behandeln, zu heilen oder zu verhindern. Shilajit ist kein Medikament und sollte im Falle einer Schwermetall- oder einer anderen Vergiftung nicht verwendet werden. Der Zweck dieses Artikels besteht darin, die öffentliche Besorgnis über das Thema im Allgemeinen anzusprechen und Shilajit hinsichtlich des Gehalts an Schwermetallen mit anderen Produkten zu vergleichen. Die Aussagen, die auf dieser Website (und allen begleitenden Materialien) gemacht werden, wurden nicht von der FDA überprüft und sind nicht dazu bestimmt, die Aufmerksamkeit oder Beratung eines Arztes oder anderer qualifizierter Gesundheitsdienstleister zu ersetzen.

Wie sehen die Schwermetallspiegel in meinen Lebensmitteln in der Realität aus?

Wenn Sie die Regulierung112 into your own hands, you may find our heavy metals calculator helpful in gaining insight as to how much heavy metals you truly consume on a daily basis.

Wenn Sie die durchschnittliche Konzentration in ppm eines Schwermetalls in einem bestimmten Lebensmittel kennen, geben Sie diese einfach unten zusammen mit der Menge des täglich konsumierten Lebensmittels ein, um Ihren Kontakt zu verfolgen.

Schwermetallaufnahme pro Portion berechnen
Metall PPM MG
Mikrogramm konsumiert
0.00ug
Bundes- und Landeserlaubnisniveau:
FDA 12.5 ug
USP 5 ug
ATSDR n/a
Prop 65 0.5 ug
food
leaf Similar Foods:

Warum werden einige Metalle als Schwermetalle bezeichnet und andere nicht?

What most people perceive to be a 'heavy metal' rather refers to a toxin; or more accurately, the point at which and the form in which any metal exceeds natural environmental levels or is presented in a toxic form and becomes damaging to a living organism. According to science, this view of heavy metals is not entirely accurate.

Eine wahre Definition von Schwermetallen

The truth is that the term 'heavy metal' has a unique meaning depending on who you're asking and in what context. A metal-worker may categorize a heavy metal according to weight, a physicist due to atomic number and a chemist due to the chemical behavior.

Wissenschaftlich wird ein Schwermetall durch folgende Eigenschaften definiert::

  1. Eine Dichte, die fünfmal größer ist als die von Wasser.
  2. Eine hohe Atomnummer.
  3. Eine Tendenz zur Bioakkumulation in lebenden Geweben.
  4. Verschiedene Auswirkungen auf die Umwelt, abhängig von Typ, Form und Konzentration.

Wikipedia

The periodic table of elements is generally divided up into heavy metals, light metals, metalloids and nonmetals, all of which display unique properties like the ones listed above.

The definition of 'heavy metals' often also encompasses heavy metalloids, which have a combination of both metal and nonmetal properties; further twisting the true meaning of the term.

Die Geburt der Schwermetall-Toxikologie

While there is evidence that quite a few ancient civilizations knew about the potential dangers of arsenic, mercury and lead, the first scientific investigations regarding heavy metal toxicity only truly appeared in modern literature in the early 1800s. The Industrial Revolution had sparked an urgent need for research into metal toxicity, as people who lived or worked near factories were suddenly coming down with mysterious symptoms that often resulted in premature death if left untreated.

Unsplash / American Public Power Association

Öffentliche Wahrnehmung: Schwermetall oder Malapropismus?

The term 'heavy metal' began to be popularized from this time as it was assumed that these elements are more toxic due to their heavier weight, larger particle size and tendency to accumulate in the tissues of living organisms.

Isorepublic / Konstantin Kolosov

However, heavy metals are not the only metals that are known to bioaccumulate or cause serious damage in the wrong form and concentration. Pretty soon the term was loosely applied by the general public to include any other deleterious metal toxins, like aluminum (a light metal) or arsenic (a heavy metalloid).

Als die Sicherheit bei Schwermetallen zur ernsthaften Sorge wurde

It took scientists roughly about a century to collect data on heavy metals and work out the forms, concentrations and conditions in which they are truly toxic. Safety regulations regarding metals began to appear from the 1950s onward, yet only really took off as being commonplace worldwide with the creation of the EPA in the 70s. Furthermore, global scientific understanding of heavy metal toxicity and safety is incomplete, with more research refining the regulations every few years.

Trotz des Hypes kann man nicht ignorieren, dass Schwermetallkontamination nicht nur ein Produkt der Menschheit ist.

Die Geschichte der Schwermetallverschmutzung reicht mehr als 2,7 Milliarden Jahre zurück

Heavy metal pollution has been consistently occurring on the planet for millions of years. It’s unavoidable given that all elements are found naturally in the Earth's crust, with a tendency to redistribute around the planet's ecosystem through the course of time.

Natural events (that have shaped Earth's ecosystems since life began) have been contaminating the environment with heavy metal pollution for much longer than humans have been on the planet. Examples of these natural events include:

  • Waldbrände
  • Vulkanausbrüche
  • Erosion von Mineralgesteinen
  • Periodische Schwankungen des Meeresspiegels
  • Meteoritentätigkeit

Die Timeline der Verschmutzung nachzeichnen

volcanic activity

Unsplash / USGS

There are records that suggest that volcanic activity on the planet is older than 2700 million years (as with the Blake River Megacaldera Complex in Canada1) and the oldest wildfire is believed to have begun approximately 420 million years ago. This makes our ±5-8million year evolution seem like a dismal speck of dust by comparison!

Das Leben auf der Erde stammt aus und wurde gemacht, um die oben beschriebenen Formen der Metallkontamination zu tolerieren, sonst wären wir heute nicht hier.

Wie sich das Leben auf der Erde entwickelt hat, um gelegentliche Schwermetallverschmutzungen zu tolerieren

Just like inside the body of all living organisms, the trillions of microbes in the environment work hard to ameliorate the effects of the naturally occurring heavy metal toxicity that arises through all of the above events.

  1. Bindung an freie Schwermetalle.. This often neutralizes their charge, which substantially lowers reactivity, oxidation and toxicity.
  2. Enthaltung von Schwermetallen innerhalb einer organischen Struktur.. This makes heavy metals easier for living organisms and the environment to process.

Furthermore, every time pollution is released into the environment, it either encounters or contains black carbon and other molecules that are known to bind to heavy metals and other pollutants.2

Wann wurde Schwermetallverschmutzung zum Problem?

Angesichts der Tatsache, dass das Leben auf der Erde natürliche Formen der Schwermetallverschmutzungbewältigen konnte, stellt sich die Frage, ob Schwermetallverschmutzung jemals wirklich ein Problem war.

While humanity has made a significant contribution to metal pollution on the planet, it is debatable whether it could serve to topple the natural order of things when placed in a broader context. There is plenty of evidence to suggest that we have been adding to the natural heavy metal pollution on the planet for thousands of years without fault.

Frühe Menschen waren von Natur aus Schmelzer

Hohe Konzentrationen von Kupfer, Zink, Quecksilber, Blei und Cadmium werden oft als Folge des Schmelzens von Metallerzen in die Umwelt freigesetzt.3 Heavy metal pollution in quantities far exceeding modern safety limits has been documented from ancient caves that once served as smelting sites.4

cave drawings

Clemens Schmillen / Wikimedia Commons

Treibstoff für das allererste Feuer

Beweise für solche Schwermetallverschmutzungen stammen aus der Zeit um 8000 v. Chr.5; however, it is still being debated when humans first truly discovered fire - the original source of manmade pollution. The oldest remnants of humans burning fuel stems back to about 1.5 million years ago6, suggesting that it's very likely that we have been living with our own heavy metal pollution for more than a millennium.

Epochen mit einer Vorliebe für Verschmutzung

However, when studying human bones from different historical periods, scientists have noticed a clear trend for rising heavy metal contamination between the Neolithic era (±12000-4500 BC) and the Bronze, Roman and Byzantine periods (3000 BC - 1453 AD).7

In Anbetracht dessen, ab welchem Zeitpunkt sollte Schwermetallverschmutzung als Bedrohung für die menschliche Gesundheit angesehen werden?

Schwermetalle bilden einen wichtigen Bestandteil einer ausgewogenen Paleo-Diät

According to the current evidence, humanity has been living with high levels of heavy metal pollution for a long time with little to suggest that it has been blatantly harmful to civilizations of the past.

A few interesting modern studies were published with respect to heavy metal levels detected in the fossilized bones of both fish and seals from the Stone Age (dated between 6300 BC and 3800 BC).

Fish with Mercury

Unsplash / Clint Bustrillos

Lust auf Fisch mit Ihrem Quecksilber?

The scientists reported that the level of mercury found in the fish bones was 20 times greater than the maximum amount considered safe by the European Food Safety Authorities. The seal bones contained amounts up to 15 times greater! Both the fish and seal samples also contained at least 4 times as much cadmium than what is considered the safety limit by modern standards.8

Considering that these ancient remains were evidently butchered in large numbers and found upon historical refuse sites near village ruins; it brings a new depth to the common understanding of heavy metal pollution and the original Paleo Diet.

Was Hundertjährige und Jäger und Sammler gemeinsam haben könnten

In der heutigen Welt ist die Verschmutzung aufgrund von Jahrzehnten der Industrialisierung deutlich höher, und doch zeigt ein Blick auf die gemeinsamen Trends zwischen den Blue Zones9 (where people commonly live to being over 100) will prove that the traditional diets and lifestyles our ancestors followed still promotes longevity and well-being, even under the current conditions we live in.

Obwohl dies paradox erscheint, gibt es einige plausible Erklärungen dafür, warum dies der Fall ist.

Uralte Ernährung für paläolithische Toleranz in einer modernen Welt

Some researchers say that the large amounts of dietary antioxidants and nutrients that our ancestors consumed (such as trace minerals and essential vitamins), helped to maintain a good tolerance toward heavy metal toxicity. The common dietary trends of today are lacking in several essential nutrients that are vital for heavy metal elimination.

Wie gefährlich sind Schwermetalle in der Realität?

Technically, the safety of any metal depends entirely on situational factors which can potentiate or lessen the danger. The form the metal is in, the concentration, whether it can be utilized for biological processes, how it is ingested, the size of the particles, etc11 are all factors that would affect ultimately just how dangerous any given heavy metal is for the body.

Was gibt es, das kein Gift ist? Alle Dinge sind Gift und nichts ist ohne Gift. Allein die Dosis bestimmt, was kein Gift ist.

Paracelsus, der Vater der Toxikologie10, 1493-154110, 1493-1541

Um die Dinge zu vereinfachen, ist es am einfachsten, bei Schwermetallen und ihrer Sicherheit von zwei Hauptkategorien auszugehen::

  1. Organische gebundene Metalle, die überall in der Natur vorkommen
  2. Freie anorganische Metalle in Verschmutzung und künstlicher Extraktion

Organische gebundene Metalle, die überall in der Natur vorkommen

While all metals are technically inorganic, a distinction has been made in chemistry between organic and inorganic metals as a way to refer to whether they are bound to an organic substrate or not.

In der Natur kommen die meisten Elemente nur in gebundener Form vor.

Organic metals are generally the by-product of bacterial processing, bound to carbon substrates that tend to make them less reactive and less toxic. Free metals tend to be highly reactive, with loose electrons on their surface that are known to damage other particles in the quest to complete the metal’s outer atomic shell.

reaction of heavy metals abstract picture

Unsplash / USGS

Organisch gleichbedeutend mit narrensicher?

The pitfall of organo-metals is that they can be more easily absorbed by cells with a higher bioavailability, which may produce a quicker reaction when initially exposed. Through the elimination process, organic metals can be changed into a variety of forms that may produce symptoms of toxicity before being stabilized and removed.

Trotzdem werden organische Metalle schneller aus dem System ausgeschieden und sind in der Regel leichter von lebenden Organismen zu tolerieren, ohne dabei großen Schaden anzurichten.

Ausnahmen von der Regel

Once again, this depends on the dose and the tolerance of the organism. A person’s tolerance to heavy metals is a reflection of their ability to metabolize and eliminate the toxin, which is linked with multiple factors such as overall toxin exposure, nutritional status, and age.

Obwohl Schwermetalle in beiden Formen gleich giftig sein können, scheint das Leben auf der Erde besser in der Lage zu sein, Metalle in organischer Form zu tolerieren.

Anorganisch - Dennoch durch die Natur gebunden

Some inorganic heavy metals are found in a neutral bound form in nature and are ingested by us every time we inhale dust particles in the air. These tend to pass through our systems unnoticed, as most particles are too large to be broken down efficiently and absorbed before being excreted.

Die Schlüssel, die die Schlösser formten

Organic metals and inorganic metal salts from nature are present in a specific 3D orientation (chirality), whereas most synthetically produced metal salts are not. It is theorized that the natural chirality of organic molecules helped to shape the receptors on the surface of living cells to facilitate absorption. In this way, synthetic versions are simply not the right shape to fit the biochemical lock at the cellular level.

dust with heavy metal particles

Unsplash / Kunj Parekh

Freie anorganische Metalle in Verschmutzung und künstlicher Extraktion

Anorganische Metalle sind in der Regel Metalle, die durch eine chemische Reaktion aus ihren Bindungen gelöst wurden.

Der Begriff kann auch auf synthetisch hergestellte Metallsalze und nicht organisch gebundene Metalle in der Natur angewendet werden.

Wussten Sie schon: Chemie ist eine Reise zur Stabilität?

Im Allgemeinen sind anorganische Metalle für organisches Leben weitaus giftiger, bis sie sicher gebunden sind und ihre Ladung neutralisiert ist.

When consumed by an organism, inorganic and organic versions of the same metal are usually metabolized in almost the same way. Inorganic metals tend to undergo additional steps in order to be eliminated and are more likely to cause extra harm in the process.


Doodle1

Wussten Sie schon: Chemie ist eine Reise zur Stabilität

Any metal element that is not bound is ultimately unstable and capable of causing harm in any living system until stability has been achieved. The usual trend is for particles in nature to reach a balance and achieve stable neutrality, which generally requires for them to be bound in one form or another.


Wer hat die Schwermetallionen aus ihren Bindungen befreit?

Heavy metals get released from their chemical bonds due to combustion or any other similar chemical reaction. Thus, industrial pollution, volcanic eruptions and raging wildfires are all sources of inorganic metal pollution that burden the environment.

Schwermetallverschmutzung

Unsplash / Tobias Seidl

However, pollution in any form is nothing new to the trillions of microbes that inhabit the Earth’s surface. Thanks to their persistent survival efforts, the habitat is hospitable for all other organic life on the planet.

Ausnahmen von der Regel

When combustion occurs, a variety of both inorganic and organic metal species are generated. The chemical instability creates much ionic turbulence, rapidly shifting the distribution of elements. Many of the organic species, while bound, are just as unstable as the inorganic varieties and are referred to as ‘Volatile Organic Compounds.’ These compounds tend to stabilize shortly after being exposed to air.

Bioakkumulieren sich anorganische Schwermetalle?

Both organic and inorganic metals can bio-accumulate in the tissues of plants, microbes and animals. Whether bioaccumulation occurs or not depends on the form and how well the elimination systems of the organism perform.

Überraschung! Alle Lebensmittel enthalten Schwermetalle

All metals are found in trace amounts in and on the Earth’s crust with varying degrees of rarity. Many heavy metals form an essential part of the food chain and are required for important biological reactions inside plant and animal cells alike.

red vegetables

Isorepublic / NordWood Themes

Ein wenig von allem ist überall vorhanden

It is also observed that trace amounts of many non-essential heavy metals are found ubiquitously throughout living tissues. Several of them are capable of participating in chemical reactions by trading with similarly charged essential elements (such as rubidium and cesium).12

In some instances, a minor replacement of ions can prove beneficial for the organism. Yet if the host were to become overwhelmed with the non-essential metal, it may cause deprivation of the essential metal and that would lead to multiple health concerns.

Viele Schwermetalle werden recycelt, um Nahrungsmittel anzubauen

Industrial operations increase pollution and concentrate heavy metals in the environment surrounding them. Many industries attempt to reduce their pollution output through profiteering from the process, selling back the metal portions for use in other industrial purposes and products.

Hauptbeispiele, wohin ein Teil unserer kollektiven Schwermetallverschmutzung gelangt, sind:

  • Agrar-Chemikalien-Sprays
  • Bio-Schlämme (verarbeiteter menschlicher Abfalldünger)
  • Schwerlastreinigungsmittel

In the sense of heavy metal pollution, modern farming practices trade sustainability for maximum yields and product homogeneity. So it is hard to say what foods exactly are high in heavy metals.

heavy metals in agricultural products

Unsplash / Ibadah Mimpi

It’s not to say that there aren’t safety regulations that limit heavy metals in agricultural products that most farmers use. However, the metals are known to bio-accumulate in soil, water and living tissues, causing a shift in soil bacteria and fertility status. Farmers try to employ cost-effective strategies like crop rotation to help the soil recover. As a result, the food crops they grow tend to have accumulations of these metals in various quantities.

As you can imagine, this makes the pollution in fresh produce difficult to both assess and regulate. Most crops are not screened for the full spectrum of contaminants they may harbor.

cotton

Pexels / Magda Ehlers

This applies not only to food crops, but to other crops as well, such as cotton, which happens to be sprayed with one of the few approved commercial applications of mercury (as a fungicide).


Doodle1

Wussten Sie schon: Einige Schwermetalle sind tatsächlich wichtig für die Gesundheit

Es mag einige überraschen zu wissen, dass viele essentielle Spurenelemente are in fact heavy metals and can be toxic in large doses or if taken in the wrong form. This should come to no surprise as all elements form the basis of which life is built.

Die Liste der für unsere Gesundheit essentiellen Metalle umfasst:

  • Kobalt
  • Kupfer
  • Chrom
  • Eisen
  • Mangan
  • Molybdän
  • Nickel
  • Selen
  • Zink

Enthält Shilajit Schwermetalle?

We would like to say that the best quality Shilajit is preserved at high altitudes on the slopes of isolated, wild mountain ranges and therefore is free from all pollution in its natural state. However, even samples collected from some of the most remote ecosystems in the world are now starting to show records of having trace amounts of pollution in them (such as seen in Antartica).13

We are not saying that all Shilajit is unpolluted however, merely that in its natural state at high altitudes it contains safe levels of heavy metals; many of which are in forms, concentrations and ratios that are either benign or fantastic for the health of living organisms.

Verschmutzung scheint angesichts der aktuellen Praktiken der modernen Zivilisation unvermeidlich zu sein.

Angesichts der Tatsache, dass...

  1. Qualitäts-Shilajit wird in einigen der am wenigsten verschmutzten Lebensräume der Erde gesammelt;
  2. Es ist biologisch ausgestattet mit einer beeindruckenden Vielzahl von Wirkstoffen, die nachgewiesen haben, die Umwelt von Schadstoffen zu reinigen;

...wir glauben, dass Shilajit eines der besten natürlichen Nahrungsergänzungsmittel ist, das Sie auf dem Planeten finden können, um mit Umweltverschmutzung umzugehen.

eagle in the mountains

Pexels / eberhard grossgasteiger

Niedrige Qualität kann toxisch sein

Toxische Schwermetallkontamination in Shilajit ist viel wahrscheinlicher eine Nebenwirkung von minderwertigen Quellen. Bei der Sammlung von Shilajit enthält es natürliche Verunreinigungen (Steine, Flechten, etc.) und deshalb ist es wichtig, es zu reinigen, aber man kann es nicht leicht von Schwermetallen reinigen. Es ist sehr wichtig, alle Rohstoffe vor der eigentlichen Herstellung zu testen.

Hersteller eines minderwertigen Produkts neigen dazu, unangemessene Behälter zu verwenden. Diese bestehen wahrscheinlich aus Materialien, die zusätzliche freie Schwermetalle in das Endprodukt abgeben könnten.. These are likely to be made from materials that could leach additional free heavy metals into the final product.

Diese tödliche Kombination macht minderwertiges Shilajit potenziell gefährlich.

Gute Qualität ist gut zu verwenden!

In the case of good quality Shilajit, there are little to no heavy metals found to enter the purification process and the active ingredients are fully preserved, making it highly beneficial for all living organisms. Freeze drying and other methods are available that do not raise the temperature of the Shilajit above 102°F (39°C), serving as a part of the golden standard for Shilajit processing to those in the know.

Shilajit Heavy Metals

Für weitere Informationen zur Reinheit von Shilajit werfen Sie einen Blick auf unseren Leitfaden, wie man gute Qualität Shilajit identifiziert.

Treffen Sie die Behörden für Schwermetalle: Schwermetallvorschriften, Richtlinien und Sicherheitsmargen

There is no single golden standard that has been approved globally for safe levels of heavy metals and other pollutants found in food, supplements, other supplies or the environment.

Every country maintains its own set of safety standards that are generally founded on relevant bodies of scientific work that have been building over the last century.

Wer kontrolliert und setzt Schwermetalle durch?

In the United States, heavy metal safety is controlled and enforced by the FDA when it relates to a food or dietary supplement, like Shilajit. Other federal agencies that play a role in heavy metal safety regulation include the EPA (where environmental pollution is concerned) and the USDA (for animal products).

Additionally, state and local laws may enforce their own safety regulations, which impact businesses operating at a national or global level, such as is the case with California Proposition 65.

FDA

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) forms a branch of the federal Department of Health and Human Services. It is responsible for instituting safety regulations pertaining to heavy metals and other contaminants found in foods, drugs, cosmetics and medical devices.14

FDA sign

Depositphotos

Wie die FDA die Sicherheit von Schwermetallen reguliert

Die FDA arbeitet eng mit dem USDA und der EPA zusammen und hat Sicherheitsstandards für Schwermetalle entwickelt, die nationalen Daten entsprechen.

Every year, multiple branches of each agency tests hundreds of products, environmental samples and average blood levels of pollutants across the population to keep track of heavy metal pollution throughout the US.

This data is then used to detect hazards and devise strategies to minimize pollution in the supply chain - where possible. Often exposures to heavy metals and pollutants are multifactorial with an overlap between the environment and food production.

Ein klassisches Beispiel dafür ist die Verringerung von Bleiverschmutzung in den USA.

regulation of Heavy Metal safety

Pexels / Polina Tankilevitch

Das "Verbot" von bleihaltigem Kraftstoff

Lead is well known for inducing neurotoxic and carcinogenic effects, being of particular concern to growing children, developing fetuses and pregnant women. Exposure has mostly crept in through the use of leaded fuel, which is absorbed by plants, consumed by livestock and concentrated in cities and abundant in industrial operations.

As soon as it was understood that blood levels of lead were causing toxic effects in the 60’s, permissible lead levels in fuel were set to lower every decade15 bis sie schließlich 1996 "ausgephasst" wurden.

Currently, the permissible level is 0.05gram per gallon in unleaded fuels and 2grams in leaded aircraft fuels. This helped to lower lead levels in products across the spectrum, yet it is still permissible as a fuel additive in fuel for farming equipment, marine engines and racecars.16

Regulierte Verschmutzung bleibt bestehen

In spite of major efforts to eradicate pollution, the reality is that until highly advanced sustainable technology is developed to facilitate pollution-free manufacturing, it will be impossible to eradicate man-made heavy metal pollution without moving away from industrialization entirely.

One thing that comes across when I look at the data is that there isn’t one single source we can point to that results in exposure to these metals. Even though the levels of a metal in any particular food is low, our overall exposure adds up because many of the foods we eat contain them in small amounts.
Conrad Choiniere, Ph.D., Leiter des Office of Analytics and Outreach
im Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition der FDA17

Die FDA überwacht weiterhin den Bleigehalt in Produkten und berechnet, ob das festgestellte Blei bei Einnahme schädlich wäre.

According to their guidelines, the minimum blood level of lead that would cause harm to children is 3mcg/dL and 12.5mcg/dL in adults. These figures are intentionally set to be nearly 10 times lower than the actual levels required by the CDC’s safety standards. Referred to as Interim Reference Levels, they are updated to reflect current data when pertinent.18

chart of lead level in kids

Wikipedia

Kalifornische Proposition 65

In addition to the standards set by the FDA, the state of California has issued its own heavy metal safety regulation. While officially known as the Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986, it is generally known as California Proposition 65.

California Prop 65 demands that businesses inform citizens of California of any contaminants in their products that may cause cancer, birth defects or reproductive harm. This is typically achieved through a warning label on the product and is only a requirement in the state of California.19

Chemikalien, die von der Kalifornischen Proposition 65 reguliert werden, können hier eingesehen werden. .

warning

Wikimedia

Der Weg zur Hölle ist mit guten Absichten gepflastert...

California adopts much stricter heavy metal safety standards than the FDA. In many instances these standards are nearly impossible to attain given the environmental history and distribution of certain pollutants.

Originally this initiative was set in place to serve Californians and protect against groundwater contamination. Sadly the regulation’s expansion to other commodities has also served as a legal trap for small businesses who cannot afford the resulting legal fines.

Lead is a prime example, with the Californian standard being set at 0.5mcg, in spite of its high prevalence in the environment due to past fuel contamination. In this respect, even ordinary vegetables are likely to miss the mark

Lead in vegetables

Pexels / Magda Ehlers

Sicherheitsstandards spiegeln oft ein veraltetes Verständnis von Schwermetalltoxizität wider

There are still large gaps in our collective understanding of heavy metal toxicity today and therefore the standards that govern heavy metal safety are also in their infancy.

What is deemed as safe or toxic is a reflection of the scientific understanding of heavy metal toxicity at the time that a consensus was reached in the form of a safety standard.

Analyse der Daten hinter den Standards

The science to back up the majority of safety standards that have been proposed for any potentially hazardous substances were extrapolated from the following:

  • Tierversuche.. The animals were often given extremely large doses that represented an unrealistic scenario when scaled up to human proportions.
  • Bioakkumulation in der Umwelt.. Scientific data on the way and rate in which heavy metals accumulate in animals, microbes, plants and sediments also lent a hand in shaping heavy metal safety standards.
  • Klinische Beobachtungen.. Other data was taken into consideration from clinical observations in patients and workers who were continuously exposed to a toxin. This was generally before it was understood that the substance was toxic within the context it was presented.

Unsere Sicherheitsideale sind im Wesentlichen kluge Vermutungen

Even though many are dying to know what is truly safe, it is far too unethical to get a direct answer by conducting toxicology trials on humans. Intelligent guesses on the actual safe levels were concluded from these types of trials and from that, a basic frame of reference for heavy metal safety was built.

It can be expected for safety regulations to change as we learn more about the complex interactions between heavy metals, living organisms and the environment.

A woman feeding child

Pexels / Andrea Piacquadio

Lasst uns die schreckliche Wahrheit enthüllen! Eine umfassende Perspektive auf die Top 4 der Schwermetalle

Blei, Quecksilber, Arsen und Cadmium are deemed some of the worst pollutants worldwide and are under close surveillance in the US by the FDA and related bodies of authority.

The list of metals has a reputation for consistently heavy metal poisoning humankind throughout history. In spite of much investigation, scientists are still trying to pinpoint the exact forms and concentrations of each that gives rise to toxicity, potential benefit or a neutral effect.

Mit diesem Wissen wollen wir die Fakten zusammenfassen und einen Blick darauf werfen, was bisher über diese 4 berüchtigten Schwermetalle bekannt ist..

Die 4 Metalle, die für Sulfhydryl-Reaktivität verantwortlich sind:

Es ist kein Zufall, dass diese vier Metalle oft im Streben nach Minimierung der globalen Verschmutzung besonders beachtet werden.

human anatomy

Unsplash / Arthur Lambillotte

Blei, Quecksilber, Arsen und Cadmium all have an affinity for sulfur-containing molecules (such as amino acids and crucial DNA signaling molecules) and tend to disrupt hundreds of cellular processes as a result.20

Die Symptome werden durch Ablagerungen bestimmt

In their respective toxic forms and concentrations, these four metals are known to be carcinogenic and neurotoxic. As all of them have the tendency to bioaccumulate in all other tissues, symptoms of toxicity can be generalized and non-specific for each type. However, each metal does seem to preferentially adopt differing deposition sites in the body (aside from the nerves), giving rise to a subset of unique symptoms for each that have characterized their individual toxicology profiles for centuries.

While they have minor differences in their modes of toxicity, the way the body metabolizes and eliminates these four metals is more or less the same. The profile of each metal is discussed in detail below.

Blei

Blei-PB

Lead Pb Charge

Lead is a dull grey-colored metal that has had a long-standing relationship with humanity. Since the dawn of alchemy, lead has been associated with Saturn, the Father of Time.

"Das erste Gesicht des Saturn ist schwarz, das zweite ist weiß, und das dritte hat die Farbe von Rauch aus Blei."
Maslama Al-Majriti, Astronom, Mathematiker und Chemiker, 950-1007 n. Chr.

The malleability of the metal, the way it could be manipulated to create pigments (namely white, red and blue), its corrosion-resistant properties and later on, its chemical prowess as a fuel additive all contributed to its early attractiveness as an industrial material.

Moderne Verwendungen von Blei umfassen immer noch:

  • Autobatterien
  • Pigmente
  • Bestimmte Lote
  • Gewichte zum Heben und Tauchen
  • Anti-Strahlungs-Geräte
  • Kristallglasprodukte
  • Munition

Blei kann immer noch in geringen Mengen in Treibstoff sowie in alten Rohren, Keramik und Farben gefunden werden.21

Toxische Formen von Blei

Nach Angaben der WHO und vieler anderer glaubwürdiger Organisationen gibt es "keine sichere Bleibelastung".

That is to say, no safe level that has currently been found in the scientific literature to date. Lead appears to be toxic at all levels tested and in most forms, with primarily the in-organic forms being worse for us than their organic counterparts.

Toxische anorganische Bleiarten können durch Verbrennung, Bergbauoperationen und andere industrielle Aktivitäten entstehen.

Warum ist anorganisches Blei schlimmer als organisches Blei?

It is interesting to note that organic lead has a far higher bioavailability than inorganic lead, which would increase its inherent toxicity. However, lead is typically ingested in an in-organic form before being converted to multiple toxic organic forms in the gut – the prime mechanism for how it becomes toxic in the first place. This is also a description of the beginning steps our body takes naturally to eliminate such toxins, allowing for them to be taken up, broken down and neutralized for smooth excretion. If the elimination systems of the body are not functioning properly, the toxicity of the compound is orders of magnitude worse.

lead

Wikimedia Commons

Wie gelangt Blei in unsere Nahrung?

Trotz des Verbots von bleihaltigen Kraftstoffen ist die Verbrennung von Kraftstoff immer noch die führende Form der Bleibelastung für die meisten Menschen heute.

  • Industrie:: Lead is one of the main heavy metals released during fuel combustion and smelting of metal ores, particularly the smelting of copper, silver or lead ores. Plastics like PVC are contaminated with lead.
  • Landwirtschaft:: Biosolid fertilizers (recycled nutritional components of sewage) also contain high levels of heavy metals that are prone to accumulating in the agricultural crops and soils to which they are applied. In spite of stringent regulations22, the long-term effects are still being studied23 und der Grad der Kontamination ist unbekannt.
  • Lebensmittel:: Grains like rice and other water loving crops are most susceptible to lead accumulation in this manner. Similarly, cadmium appears to pollute food through this avenue as well.
Rice

Pexels / Polina Tankilevitch

Verteilung von Blei im Körper

The majority of lead that deposits in the body rests in the bones, while small fractions reside in the blood, digestive organs, lungs, kidneys, heart and other soft tissues.24 Bei Kindern wirkt Blei hauptsächlich als Neurotoxin.

An average individual stores approximately 120mg of lead in their bones. Lead stores are also known to mobilize out of the bone alongside calcium stores, which allows for it to re-enter circulation and re-distribute to other body compartments.

Elementare Verteilung von Blei im Periodensystem

Carbon, silicon and germanium all fall into the same elemental group as lead and therefore lead toxicity may cause the stores of these elements to be displaced.

Symptome einer Bleivergiftung

Bleivergiftung kann Anämie, Eisenverlust, beeinträchtigte Nährstoffaufnahme, Darmentzündung, DNA-Schäden verursachen und das Tumorwachstum fördern.25 Further symptoms or conditions caused as a result of lead toxicity include:

  • Schwäche oder starke Müdigkeit
  • Bauchschmerzen
  • Übelkeit
  • Migräne
  • Schwindel
  • Schwindel
  • Steifheit
  • Steifigkeit
  • Blindheit
  • Lähmung
  • Periphere Neuropathie
  • Schwere Gehirnentzündung
  • Gicht (oft als "saturnine Gicht" bezeichnet)

It is interesting to note that lead toxicity appears to make people aggressive and hyperactive through the way it interacts with the hippocampus in the brain.26

Lebensmittel mit hohem Bleigehalt

Lead has been extensively studied in baby foods as children are deemed the most vulnerable to lead poisoning. The following types of baby foods contained high levels of lead on average27:

  • Wurzelgemüse
  • Crackers und Kekse
  • Fruchtsäfte, insbesondere Traubensaft
  • Reisbasierte Zubereitungen

Plastik ist mit Blei versehen!

Blei wurde auch in allen industriellen Kunststoffprodukten neben Cadmium nachgewiesen. PVC und andere robuste Kunststoffe enthalten wahrscheinlich Blei28, which extends to the majority of packaging for appliances and home goods such as stoves, fridges and mattresses.

Halten Sie Kinder von Kunststoff fern, wenn möglich

Children are at risk of lead poisoning and SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome) from such products. As lead and cadmium have been detected in plastic soft toys, it is advisable to limit exposure of such toys to very young children.

Sicherere Formen von Blei

In nature, it is more common to find lead in neutral Pb-Pb complexes or locked inside mineral ores than it is to find it organically bound to carbon or any other element. Lead can be found naturally in the Earth’s crust at 11 ppm.

earth full of heavy metals

Unsplash / Elena Mozhvilo

Lead bound in complexes is relatively non-absorbable and thus less toxic. Organic lead has a higher bioavailability, making it potentially more toxic initially, however it tends to have a faster clearance rate than inorganic lead. Inorganic lead is converted to organic lead compounds by the gut microbiome to facilitate swift removal or is taken up by cells and reduced into less toxic forms; adding to the length and severity of symptoms depending on the form and concentration.

Empfohlene tägliche Expositionsgrenze

Blei ist in der Erdkruste im Vergleich zu anderen schweren Metallen in höherer Konzentration vorhanden und liegt bei 15 ppm.30

According to the WHO, there is no safe level of lead exposure. It is estimated that the daily intake of lead on average per person is about 0.1mg.

  • Die EPA betrachtet Blei bei einem Blutspiegel von 10 mcg/dL bei Kindern als zu hoch,31während die CDC 5 mcg/dL als Grenzwert ansieht.32
  • Die FDA hat eine sichere Bleiexpositionsgrenze für Erwachsene von 12,5 mcg pro Tag und für Kinder von 3 mcg pro Tag festgelegt.
  • Die berufliche Bleiexposition ist auf 50 mcg pro m3 Luft während einer 8-stündigen Schicht begrenzt.33

Lebensmittel mit natürlicherweise vorkommendem Blei

What foods are high in this heavy metal? Lead appears to have an affinity for accumulating in roots and root vegetables, such as sweet potatoes; however it can be found ubiquitously in very low amounts in all fruits and vegetables.

Quecksilber

Quecksilber-Pb

Pestilent Mercury

In spite of its toxic reputation, mankind seems to have been fascinated with mercury for thousands of years. Cinnabar, the natural mineral version of mercury, has been used as a red pigment by early humans since Paleolithic times (more than 30 000 years ago) to paint caves.35

"Die Alchemisten waren überzeugt, dass Quecksilber sowohl den festen als auch den flüssigen Zustand, sowohl die Erde als auch den Himmel, sowohl das Leben als auch den Tod überwindet."

Quecksilber, Royal Society of Chemistry34

Quecksilber wurde von Alchemisten verehrt, da es die einzige Substanz war, in der Gold sich auflösen konnte, und es wird heute noch weitgehend bei der Gewinnung von Golderzen verwendet.

Toxische Formen von Quecksilber

Quecksilber

Tumblr / newlifeplease

Quecksilber ist in seinen organischen Formen am giftigsten, wobei Methylquecksilber in Fischen besonders besorgniserregend ist.

When inorganic mercury is released into the environment, aquatic microbes convert it into organic methylmercury. Thereafter it continues to accumulate in the marine food chain, with the largest deposits found in predatory and long-lived fish.

Elemental mercury is about 50 times less toxic, however is still known to induce the severe symptoms of mercury poisoning as it is bio-transformed into organic species the moment it enters the gut microbiome.

Zahnfüllungen aus Amalgam sind wie Quecksilber-Tabletten mit verzögerter Freisetzung.

Research has shown that the methylmercury levels found in predatory fish rivals that of the organic mercury compounds that constantly form in the gut of those who have mercury-based dental fillings. Dental amalgams pose the additional problem of releasing mercury vapor into the mouth of the patient for swift uptake by the lungs and brain, making them potentially twice as problematic.

mercury-based dental fillings

Wikimedia Commons

Wie Quecksilber in unsere Nahrung gelangt

Dental amalgams, fish, industrial pollution, cotton clothing and female sanitary products are the main routes of exposure for the majority of people. Elemental mercury vaporizes at most room temperatures, contributing to atmospheric pollution when industrial waste is mismanaged.

  • Industrie:: caustic soda, chlorine, thermometers, batteries, mirrors, cleaning agents, industrial contamination of air, ground water and other bodies of water (usually from power plants and smelting operations).
  • Landwirtschaft:Fungizide (insbesondere für Baumwolle36 und Saatgut).36 and seed grain).
  • Lebensmittel:Quecksilber reichert sich über die marine Nahrungskette in Fischen an.
  • Medizinisch:: Pharmaceuticals, dental amalgams, antiseptics and skin-lightening cosmetics.

Es werden große Anstrengungen unternommen, um viele dieser Quecksilberanwendungen in naher Zukunft auszufasen.

"Bin ich verrückt geworden?"
"Ich fürchte schon. Du bist total verrückt. Aber ich verrate dir ein Geheimnis. Alle besten Leute sind es."

Gespräch zwischen Alice und dem verrückten Hutmacher,
Auszüge aus Lewis Carrolls 'Alice im Wunderland'

Verteilung von Quecksilber im Körper

Mercury is perhaps the most well-known neuro-toxin, famous for inducing madness in those unfortunate enough to suffer an acute overdose, get the heavy metal poisoning, or long-term chronic exposure (the origin for the expression “mad as a hatter”). This is reflected in the way mercury primarily accumulates in the brain and nervous system, more so than any of the other three metals discussed.

The liver is another vulnerable site for mercury deposition and damage. In the case of ingesting less absorbable forms of mercury (such as salts), the kidneys and gut lining are the main sites of toxicity.

Verteilung von Quecksilber im Periodensystem

Quecksilber gehört wie Cadmium zur gleichen Elementgruppe wie Zink und ist bekannt dafür, die Zink- und Selen-Speicher im Körper zu erschöpfen.

Mercury in the Periodic Table

Wikimedia

Symptome einer Quecksilbervergiftung

Mercury poisoning is primarily contained to affecting the brain and central nervous system, but will also negatively impact the gut and kidneys. Generalized symptoms can include:

  • Durchfall oder Erbrechen
  • Bauchkrämpfe
  • Schwindel
  • Gedächtnisverlust
  • Stimmungsschwankungen
  • Reizbarkeit oder Aufgeregtheit
  • Demenz oder kognitive Beeinträchtigung
  • Depression
  • Krämpfe und Zittern
  • Übelkeit
  • Schmerzen in den Nieren
  • Chronische Müdigkeit
  • Erschöpfung
  • Schlaflosigkeit oder überaus lebhafte Träume

Bei Personen, die hohen Dosen ausgesetzt sind, kann Quecksilber Schüchternheit, Delirium, Halluzinationen und suizidale Gedanken hervorrufen.37 Impaired speech, vision, hearing and other vital functions may also occur in severe cases.38

Lebensmittel mit hohem Quecksilbergehalt

shrimps high in mercury

Unsplash / Vino Li

Seafood is the main source of mercury contamination in our diet, with mass-produced cotton textiles and laundry detergents being common secondary exposure sources.39

Raubfische an der Spitze der Nahrungskette neigen dazu, größere Mengen an organischem Quecksilber in ihrem Gewebe zu speichern. Hier ist eine Liste von Fischen und anderen Meeresfrüchten, die die höchsten Quecksilberwerte enthalten::

  • Thunfisch
  • Lachs
  • Königsmakrele
  • Orange roughy
  • Hai
  • Tilefisch (aus dem Golf von Mexiko)
  • Schwertfisch
  • Wale
  • Delfine

While not often thought of as the worst of the mercurial marine offenders, shrimp, prawns and other bottom-feeders are susceptible to harboring toxic amounts of elemental mercury. This is due to the way the heaviest particles of mercury tend to fall to the bottom of any water body in which they are suspended.

Sicherere Formen von Quecksilber

Mercury is found in trace amounts throughout the environment suspended in bodies of water, in the water vapor molecules of clouds and in certain rock minerals and salts.

Das Metall des Wahnsinns verwirrt die Gehirne

Als winziger Teil des Wasserkreislaufs des Planeten sind Spuren von Quecksilber in jeder Wolke,40, trace amounts of mercury are inherent in every cloud, rain drop and body of water. Science is still exploring how it’s possible that atmospheric mercury maintains its stability41, but it is suspected that the mercury ions are held tightly in place by bands of hydrogen and halogen ions (e.g. chlorine).42

Ähnlich halten Gesteinsmineralien und Salze metallisches Quecksilber in einer inerten, ungiftigen Form gebunden, vorausgesetzt, sie werden nicht in großen Mengen eingenommen.43

Quecksilber sollte am besten unberührt bleiben.

Unfortunately, any free forms of mercury are outright toxic, including the organic forms and therefore the safest forms of mercury are those that were left as they were originally found in nature. Mercury has a high affinity for carbon (or you could say carbon has a high mercury sequestering ability) and is easily adsorbed in soils where it remains contained and neutralized after a short time.

Die sicherste Form von Quecksilber (vergleichsweise gesehen)

Die sicherste organische Form von Quecksilber wäre relativ gesehen Ethylquecksilber. Es ist bekannt, dass Ethylquecksilber mit einer minimalen vorübergehenden toxischen Wirkung44 (depending on dosage) and no bioaccumulation, according to the WHO.45

mercury formula

Wikidata

Heutzutage wird Quecksilber nicht mehr zur Behandlung von Infektionen oder während Operationen verwendet, ist jedoch immer noch in einigen frei verkäuflichen Antiseptika wie Mercurochrom erhältlich.

Sich mit Feuer bekämpfen

Ironically, this madness-inducing metal was used successfully to fight fire with fire during a Medieval European outbreak of Syphilis (a madness-inducing disease).47

Empfohlene tägliche Expositionsgrenze

Quecksilber kommt in der Erdkruste in einer Konzentration von ca. 0,5 ppm vor.48 It is estimated that our daily intake of mercury is less than 0.01mg and that it is present in everything we consume in miniscule amounts.

  • Die Umweltschutzbehörde (EPA) hat den Grenzwert für Quecksilber im Trinkwasser auf 2 ppb festgelegt.
  • Quecksilbergehalt in Meeresfrüchten wird durch FDA-Standards auf 1 ppm reguliert.
  • Für beruflich tätige Personen gelten als Höchstgrenzen für die Exposition über eine Schicht 0,1 mg/m3 organisches Quecksilber und 0,05 mg/m3 verdampftes Quecksilber.49
  • By comparison, the WHO institutes guidelines that fall below the US safety standards for mercury exposure: 1 ppb in drinking water and 1 mcg/m3 in air.50

Lebensmittel mit natürlicherweise vorkommendem Quecksilber

Meeresfrüchte und Reis (insbesondere aus asiatischem Anbau)51 are natural sources of mercury, as are any water heavy crops, as mercury forms a core part of the planet's water cycle.

While all fish contains mercury, it’s important to consume fish as part of an overall healthy diet. Many nutrients in fish help to facilitate mercury metabolism such as selenium and omega-3 fats. The FDA has some good guidelines as to welcher Fisch sicher zu verzehren ist und wie oft.

Arsen

Arsen-Pb

Arsenic in Water

Arsenic has always been known for being toxic to the height of fatality, having a long-standing history as a royal tool for assassination. In spite of its dark history, arsenic has also been used through time in medical and industrial applications. However its use in this regard has dropped dramatically since the mid 1900’s.

"Das Gift der Könige und der König der Gifte."
Quelle unbekannt.

The word arsenic is thought to derive from the Persian word zarnikh, which later evolved to take a position in ancient Greek as arsenikon, meaning ‘potent’ or ‘masculine.’ 52

Arsenic in the Periodic Table

Wikipedia

Toxische Formen von Arsen

The most toxic forms of arsenic tend to be in-organic, yet as seen with the other metals, certain organic derivatives of inorganic arsenic can be equally toxic.

Trivalent ist das absolut Schlimmste

Trivalente methylierte Arsenverbindungen sind Beispiele für gefährliche organische Arsenverbindungen und sind auch ein Nebenprodukt ihrer Stabilisierung durch Mikroben - sowohl in der Umwelt als auch im Darm lebender Organismen. Letztendlich arbeiten Mikroben und Zellen daran, diese Form von Arsen chemisch zu einer ungiftigen Form zu reduzieren, die eine sichere Ausscheidung erleichtert, durch Reduktionsreaktionen unter Beteiligung der Aminosäure Methionin.53 - both in the environment and the gut of living organisms. Ultimately microbes and cells work to chemically reduce this form of arsenic to a non-toxic form that facilitates safe elimination, through reduction reactions involving the amino acid methionine.54

Anorganisches Arsen ist hoch bioverfügbar

Arsenic is efficiently absorbed with 80-90% of ingested inorganic arsenic being taken up systemically via the gut. The dose and degree to which the body’s metal metabolism pathways are functioning will determine how safe or toxic arsenic is ultimately.

Wie Arsen in unsere Lebensmittel gelangt

drinking water supply

Unsplash / mrjn Photography

Water is the main route of dietary arsenic exposure, either directly through the drinking water supply (more common in developing countries) or through crops irrigated with contaminated ground water.

  • Industrie:Bergbau und Schmelzen.
  • Landwirtschaft: : Various agricultural chemical sprays and formulations, biosolids, chicken manure and other livestock waste (arsenic is an essential nutrient for poultry and some livestock).
  • Lebensmittel:: Contaminated water, rice and other grains (as seen with lead and cadmium, these are the most potentially arsenic-laden crops).55
  • Umwelt:Vulkanische Aktivität, Verwitterung von arsenhaltigen Gesteinsmineralien.56

Verteilung von Arsen im Körper

Nach einigen Quellen ist Arsen das zwölftreichste Element im menschlichen Körper.57

The bodily distribution of arsenic depends on the type, concentration and phase of elimination, as it has a tricky propensity to keep redistributing to different bodily tissues during the elimination process.

Als Ergebnis ist die Verteilung von Arsen weit verbreitet und neigt dazu, sich in folgenden Geweben anzusammeln:

  • Haut
  • Haare
  • Nägel
  • Magen
  • Zunge
  • Speiseröhre
  • Schilddrüse
  • Skelett
  • Augen
  • Leber
  • Lungen
  • Fortpflanzungsorgane
  • Nervensystem

Like lead, arsenic can interfere with bone mineral status, potentially replacing phosphorus and promoting the release of calcium (and any accumulated lead) from bone tissue.

Verteilung von Arsen im Periodensystem

Arsenic falls into the same elemental grouping as nitrogen and phosphorus on the periodic table and thus may interfere with the status and distribution of these elements in the body as well.

human anatomy 3d model

Unsplash / Nhia Moua

Symptome einer Arsenvergiftung

Arsenic toxicity inhibits more than 200 cellular enzymes and causes widespread damage in the body. It negatively affects the heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, nervous system and skin. Not surprisingly, in-organic arsenic is a known carcinogen.58

Wie bei den anderen Metallen können Symptome einer allgemeinen Arsenvergiftung sein::

  • Übelkeit oder Erbrechen
  • Bauchschmerzen
  • Krämpfe
  • Muskelzuckungen
  • Erhöhte Blutzuckerspiegel
  • Temperaturschwankungen
  • Atemnot
  • Schwindel

Exposure to toxic organic forms of arsenic can contribute towards worsening cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, as well as cancers and skin problems.

Arsen verändert die Genexpression

Systemic arsenic could tamper with the DNA’s ability to regulate protein transcription. This may contribute to an increased susceptibility to viral infections that use the host’s DNA to replicate.

Lebensmittel mit hohem Arsengehalt

Arsen kontaminiert bekanntermaßen stark die meisten Reisprodukte, einschließlich Reismilch, Säuglingsnahrung mit Reis und Reisflocken.59 Up to 90% of the arsenic discovered in polluted rice samples was found to be inorganic and therefore toxic the moment it makes contact with the gut microbiome.

Andere wasserreiche Getreidearten wie Weizen und Mais können ebenfalls anorganisches Arsen anreichern, wenn sie in chemisch kontaminierten Medien angebaut werden.

Reisanbau als Boden-Arsen-Sanierungsstrategie

Rice is more As-resilient than other grains and tends to be the crop of choice for agricultural land that was subject to arsenic-laden pesticides before their use was banned.

Rice Farming as soil arsenic remediation

Pexels / Pixabay

Sicherere Formen von Arsen

Arsen ist das zwanzigstreichste Element in der Erdkruste und befindet sich an vierzehnter Stelle im Meer.

Many forms of arsenic exist (organic forms and inert salts) that are non-toxic unless ingested in large amounts. We come into contact with these forms of arsenic all the time, in the dust we breathe and the food we eat.

Pentavalent ist das kleinere Übel

The organic form of arsenic that is commonly achieved through bacterial biotransformation is the pentavalent state known as dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Ingested DMA, while still known to be toxic, passes through our systems with relatively more ease than other forms of arsenic.

Potenzieller Resilienz-Booster für Probiotika

Trace amounts of arsenic, as present in our environment, may enhance the resilience of the gut microbiome by promoting antibiotic resistant gene expression in our friendly gut bugs and upping the production of beneficial nutrients (as seen in mice studies).60

Vom FDA zugelassene Leukämiebehandlung

Safer forms of arsenic are being investigated currently by the FDA in order to treat a unique form of leukemia (Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia) as well as some types of tumors.61 Arseniktrioxid wurde bereits zur klinischen Anwendung bei der Behandlung von APL zugelassen.62

Empfohlene tägliche Expositionsgrenze

Arsen kann in der Erdkruste zwischen 1,5 und 2 ppm gefunden werden.63 According to a survey, average daily arsenic intake across 19 European countries was between 0.13 and 0.56 mcg per kg body weight per person.64

  • The EPA reference dose for the maximum safe level of inorganic arsenic exposure per day to avoid cancer is 0.3mcg per kg of body weight of the individual.65
  • The FDA has limited arsenic in eggs and chicken products to being less than 0.5 ppm and in certain swine products to less than 2 ppm (only in animals treated with arsenic-containing drugs).
  • Die EPA und die WHO haben beide einen maximal zulässigen Arsen-Grenzwert im Wasser von 10 ppb festgelegt.
  • Arsenic is heavily emitted from smelting operations, glass manufacturing plants and arsenic extraction plants. The air safety limit for workers exposed is regulated at 2 mcg/m3 during an acute short-term exposure or 10 mcg/m3 across an 8hour shift.66

Lebensmittel mit natürlicherweise vorkommendem Arsen

Viele marine Organismen enthalten organische Arsenverbindungen, die für uns beim Verzehr praktisch harmlos sind.67 As these compounds mimic Trimethylamine N-Oxide (also found in abundance in all animal products), they should be consumed in moderation to avoid upsetting the gut micro-environment.68

Broiler-Hühner benötigen Arsen als Teil ihrer Ernährung69 und sind daher eine natürliche Quelle von Arsen in der Ernährung von Menschen, die Hühner oder Eier konsumieren.

Cadmium

Cadmium-PB

Cd Element

Im Gegensatz zu den anderen Metallen hat Cadmium bescheidene Ursprünge in unserer Geschichte als Begleiter von Zink, seit es 1817 entdeckt wurde.70

Cd element has been used in minimal applications by man and was initially just an air-polluting by-product of zinc and lead smelting, coal combustion and welding. Modern uses for cadmium include metal plating and galvanizing, pigments, batteries, plastic stabilization and as a nuclear particle absorbent in nuclear power plants.

Cadmium

Wikimedia Commons

Toxische Formen von Cadmium

Generally speaking, all forms of cadmium are toxic. The only non-toxic forms are those that are neatly tucked away in the Earth’s crust, bound and stabilized by elemental zinc.

Wir nehmen 10-50% des Cadmiums auf, das wir aufnehmen, wobei Raucher im Durchschnitt viel höheren Cadmiumwerten ausgesetzt sind.71

Wie Cadmium in unsere Lebensmittel gelangt

Wir sind hauptsächlich über frisches Obst und Gemüse, Verbrennung, Rauchen von Zigaretten und industrielle Prozesse (wie Kohlekraftwerke) dem Cadmium

  • Industrie:: Air pollution from coal power stations, smelting, mining, plastic production and many other industrial activities.
  • Landwirtschaft:: Biosolid fertilizers, phosphate fertilizers and manure tend to contain cadmium which recycles back into our food the moment it is applied to crops.
  • Umwelt:: Primarily an air pollutant, cadmium enters the water cycle to contaminate bodies of water and soil.72 Contamination of water through old water pipes that were previously sealed with cadmium can also occur.
  • Lebensmittel:: Cadmium is present in all fresh produce in trace amounts. Grains tend to have the highest quantities.
Air pollution with cadmium

Pexels / Pixabay

Auch Kunststoff enthält Cadmium

Cadmium wird zur Stabilisierung von industriellen Kunststoffen73 wie PVC verwendet und in einigen Fällen zur Farbgebung eingesetzt.74 As plastics are widespread throughout society, we are exposed to cadmium compounds all the time through making use of such products (e.g. packaging, vinyl, piping). Kids are particularly at risk.

Verteilung von Cadmium im Körper

Cadmium ist dafür bekannt, sich in den Nieren anzusammeln und bei Kindern Nierenschäden zu verursachen.75 The liver is another prime site for deposition of the element, with other soft tissues and the nervous system containing lower amounts.

Der Körper hat normalerweise Schwierigkeiten, Cadmium zu eliminieren, sobald es gespeichert wurde, wahrscheinlich aufgrund der Art und Weise, wie es sich auf zwei Hauptausscheidungsorgane konzentriert.

Elementverteilung von Cadmium im Periodensystem

Cadmium is found one below zinc in the same elemental group on the periodic table and has been seen to act in a similar fashion on an ionic level. As a result, cadmium poisoning has the potential to knock vital stores of zinc and interfere with a wide range of zinc-dependent chemical reactions inside a living cell. The same has been observed with regard to cadmium and magnesium stores in the body.76

cadmium heavy metal

Wikimedia Commons

Symptome einer Cadmiumvergiftung

Cadmium, like the other heavy metals, tends to cause acute neurological toxicity when exposure concentrations reach toxic levels or it has been allowed to accumulate in the body over a long time. Kidney, heart and gut damage are also common.

Weitere Symptome sind:

  • Hypertonie77
  • Anämie
  • Erhöhte Herzfrequenz
  • Schwellung der Lunge
  • Atembeschwerden
  • Knochenerkrankungen
  • Verringerte Knochenmineralien
  • Steifheit in den Gelenken
  • Migräne
  • Schwindel
  • Kognitive Beeinträchtigung
  • Magenbeschwerden
  • Rückenschmerzen im unteren Bereich
  • Probleme beim Wasserlassen

Cadmium ist auch als bekanntes Karzinogen bekannt und wurde mit der Auslösung von Lungen-, Bauchspeicheldrüsen-, Brust- und Prostatakrebs in Verbindung gebracht.

Lebensmittel mit hohem Cadmiumgehalt

foods high in cadmium

Unsplash / Deryn Macey

More than 70% of our cadmium intake comes from plant-based sources. All vegetables are known to accumulate cadmium in high quantities due to its high bioavailability to plants and low adsorption in the soil. Cereals, pulses and legumes tend to have the highest concentrations.78

Clams, oysters, mussels and other edible mollusks tend to have high concentrations of cadmium in them, as do benthic fish, organ meats and in mushrooms (grown in contaminated media).

Die Verbindung zur Nachtschattengewächse

Potatoes and tobacco appear to have higher levels than other foods, suggesting that cadmium may have a preference for members of the “deadly” nightshade family.

Other research suggests that cadmium has a higher affinity for accumulating in acid-loving plants such as potatoes and tobacco, being less bioavailable in soils with a higher alkaline pH.79 Die Mehrheit der Pflanzen bevorzugt ein leicht saures Milieu.

Sicherere Formen von Cadmium

Inorganic cadmium is relatively stable and is not yet known to undergo biotransformation into organic versions of the element. Instead cadmium has the tendency to bio-accumulate in bacteria that are resistant to its toxicity80 oder es fällt wieder in die Gitter mineralischer Gesteine zurück.

We ingest cadmium all the time when we breathe as it tends to be present in most dust samples. The safest forms of cadmium are those we cannot absorb properly, which tends to be the larger particles that we inhale. 10-50% of the cadmium we breathe in gets absorbed, depending on the particle size.

Certain pathogens are sensitive to cadmium, such as the bacteria responsible for causing botulism in food. Thus the presence of cadmium may help minimize the risk of infectious food poisoning.

Empfohlene tägliche Expositionsgrenze

Cadmium exists in the Earth’s crust at roughly 0.1 ppm. It is estimated to be consumed on average at amounts of between 10 and 35 mcg per day, with smokers ingesting considerably higher amounts.82

  • A minimal risk level has been established at 0.1mcg per kg body weight per day to avoid deleterious health outcomes from chronic low-grade exposure (set at ten times lower than WHO standards).
  • Die Referenzdosis der EPA für die Sicherheit von Lebensmitteln beträgt 0,001 mg/kg/Tag und 0,0005 mg/kg/Tag.83
  • Die EPA und die FDA begrenzen Cadmium im Trinkwasser auf 0,005 µg/L.
  • Cadmium am Arbeitsplatz ist auf 2,5 µg pro m3 Luft über die Dauer einer 8-Stunden-Schicht begrenzt.84
  • Die direkte akute Exposition gegenüber Cadmiumdämpfen hat eine Sicherheitsgrenze von bis zu 5 µg/m3.

Lebensmittel mit natürlicher Cadmiumbelastung

Cadmium kommt in der gesamten Erdkruste vor und aufgrund seiner hohen Aufnahme durch Pflanzen findet sich Cadmium in allen Lebensmitteln in Spuren.

Die Art der Schwermetalle in Shilajit

Ist Shilajit sicher?

Many of our customers are concerned that consuming shilajit on a frequent basis may be problematic in terms of heavy metal accumulation and toxicity in the body.

As it happens, the nutritional components of the substance itself are geared toward enhancing cellular metabolism and overall wellbeing.

Unser Shilajit erfüllt hohe Standards in Bezug auf die Sicherheit von Schwermetallen - aber Sie müssen uns nicht einfach glauben!

To address some public confusion on the matter of heavy metal pollution, we have attempted to put together a fuller picture of this widespread global phenomenon in order to offer a realistic perspective. The history, distribution, toxicity, safety and natural elimination of the top four toxic heavy metals are discussed.

Genau diese Vielfalt macht hochwertiges Shilajit jedoch sicher!

Stellen Sie sich vor, Sie würden selektive Tests für alle Schwermetalle in Ihrer Nahrung durchführen...

Firstly, this is a rather impossible task as most companies do not run selective heavy metal testing on their products and most individuals cannot afford to privately test their food. Even if one managed to get everything they ate tested by multiple laboratories and the concentrations of these contaminants confirmed, the end result of such a task would likely shock most people. The reality is that heavy metals are an intimate part of our lives and present in every breath we take, whether we know it or not.

Nevertheless, it is important to minimize the toxins we are exposed to on a daily basis, but it is equally important to maximize our wellness in order to enjoy the benefits of industrial technology. Many supplements and foods, such as shilajit and fish, have potent boosting properties that one would be missing out on if heavy metal exposure was the only consideration to be made.

Wie man Shilajit sicher verwendet

While nearly everything about good quality shilajit spells elemental balance and improved well-being, it is not exempt from basic laws of nature. Therefore, just like anything in life, it can become problematic under the right circumstances.

Sicherheitsvorkehrungen für Shilajit

Obwohl unser Shilajit weit innerhalb der Sicherheitsstandards für Schwermetalle liegt, möchten Sie möglicherweise dennoch die folgenden Vorsichtsmaßnahmen ergreifen, um absolut sicher zu sein:

  • Achten Sie auf die maximale Dosierung.
  • Befolgen Sie die Anweisungen und nehmen Sie es nur einmal oder zweimal täglich ein.
  • Nehmen Sie es nicht jeden Tag,, but 4 – 5 times a week. This gives the body more time to adjust to the influx of trace metals; removing unnecessary stores and replenishing depleted ones.
  • Wechseln Sie die Langzeitanwendung von Shilajit.. After 4-6 weeks of continued use, take a 3-4 month break.
  • Bewahren Sie es außerhalb der Reichweite von Kindern auf,, the same way you would with fluoride toothpaste or prescription drugs.
  • Lagern Sie es an einem kühlen Ort, out of direct sunlight, preferably in a tight-sealing, glass container.
Shilajit Safety

Weitere Informationen zur Einnahme von Shilajit und zur Dosierung finden Sie hier..

Fazit

Before you begin to panic about the heavy metal pollution you are exposed to, take a moment to remember that all metals can be potentially toxic at concentrations and in forms that disagree with the basic chemistry of our biology.

Safety standards are based on the science and epidemiological data that is currently known, making them a constant work in progress; the reality of which often lags behind the science.

Pollution is heightened by the activities of man and is virtually unavoidable given modern circumstances. By being informed, minimizing environmental exposures and maximizing bodily well-being through enhanced nutrition and exercise, everyone can achieve their own biological balance with respect to modernized living.


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